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B站9.8分!这部纪录片带你云游故宫,探寻紫禁城青春永驻的秘密

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2016年,央视出品的纪录片《我在故宫修文物》取得巨大成功。“择一事,终一生”的工匠精神感动了无数人。

时隔4年多,该热门纪录的姊妹篇——《我在故宫六百年》重磅推出,再获好评。《我在故宫六百年》一共3集,豆瓣评分高达9.0,B站评分高达9.8。

In 2016, the documentary series Masters in the Forbidden City was met with huge success. More than 4 years later, its second season has returned with only three episodes rated high on peer-review sites. The franchise that hails the craftsman spirit of "profession for life" touched countless people and could be one of your options to idle through the Spring Festival. 

春节宅家,不如一起线上游故宫!

过去不久的2020年,在万众一心抗击病毒的同时,故宫默默地度过了它的600岁生日。2020年9月10日至11月15日,故宫举办“丹宸永固:紫禁城建成六百年”大展。

本片便是以此展为基础,以古建筑的保养修护为线索,通过故宫博物院古建部、工程部、考古部等故宫人的工作视角,踏上故宫再发现之旅。与《我在故宫修文物》一样,《我在故宫六百年》也是在“修”东西。只是这次修的东西,不是钟表、陶瓷之类的小文物,而是故宫本身。

As a tribute to the Forbidden City's 600th birthday, the documentary uses the maintenance and repair of ancient buildings as clues. It embarks on a journey of rediscovery of the Palace Museum from the perspective of the people renovating it, like workers from the Ancient Construction Department, Engineering Department, and Archaeology Department. Similar to its previous season, the second one also covers renovations, however this time it's the Palace itself that is being repaired and renovated.

片中的一些小细节也帮助我们一窥故宫的陈年旧事:

丹者为红,是宫墙的红色。宸者乃深,是深邃的宫殿。丹宸永固,即为宫殿永固之意。屋顶,就是维护宫殿永固的一大重要要素。故宫的屋顶严格采用榫卯搭建的木制结构(望板+椽+檩+扶脊木),并加有油性灰浆的灰背。

灰背之上,还有高大的屋脊和琉璃瓦。这种精密的结构足以让故宫建筑不惧水火,不怕风雨。关于故宫的屋顶,民间一直流传着一个传说:故宫的房顶从来不落鸟,不长草。

Tall roof ridges and glazed tiles on the top of palace buildings are said to be designed to fight fire, water, wind and rain. A popular folklore saying is that there had never been birds or grass on the roof of the Forbidden City. 

然而,实际情况却是这样的:

这样的……

更为有趣的是,不同宫殿的屋顶上长出来的草还不一样。比如乾隆皇帝退休后居住的皇极殿,就经常长出六味地黄丸的那个地黄。这些杂草的生根发芽会破坏故宫顶部的防水系统。因此从清代开始,内务府就会每年派人飞檐走壁,上房除草。

What's more interesting is that the grass growing on the roof of different palaces is varied. For example, on the Hall of Imperial Zenith roof where Emperor Qianlong lived after his retirement, Rehmannia glutinosa often flourishes. This is an ingredient for a typical traditional Chinese medicine. The rooting and sprouting of these weeds will destroy the waterproof system on the top of the Forbidden City. Therefore, since the Qing Dynasty, the Office of Imperial Household would send people to "fly" over the walls every year to weed the roofs.

2015年12月,养心殿启动了百余年来首次大修,专家们发现:正殿的房梁中央的扶脊木,原本应该有一个一个的椽窝卡在里面。但养心殿的这根椽子就浮搁在上面,是用钉子钉住的。这种做法非常不符合当时的建筑标准,却被正常验收了。负责修缮的工程师一语道破:或许这种偷工减料正印证了乾隆后期国力的衰退。

In December 2015, the Hall of Mental Cultivation initiated its first major overhaul in more than a hundred years. Normally, the spine wood in the center of the beam of the main hall would have been stuck inside a row of other roof rafters but experts discovered that the wood was only nailed on the surface. Such approach was totally unqualified for the building standards at that time, but it somehow escaped supervision. The engineer in charge of the repair believes that this kind of "cutting corners" is a sign for the decline of national power in the late Qianlong period.

又比如透风砖,是古代匠人的一个精巧发明。镂空的砖雕能够通风,帮助包裹在墙体的木头立柱及时排出湿气,降低朽坏的可能性。两年前,在养心殿西配殿的透风砖后,工程师意外发现了一份戏折。上面记载了清代中晚期一次宫廷演出的节目单和演员表,具有重要的史料价值。

Another anecdote mentioned is the ventilated brick, an ingenious invention of ancient craftsmen. The hollow brick carvings enable better ventilation, which can timely discharge moisture for the wood pillars wrapped in the wall and reduce the possibility of decay. Two years ago, engineers accidentally discovered a "drama list" inside one of the bricks located in the west side wall of the Hall of Mental Cultivation. The list records the shows and casts of court performances in the middle- and late Qing Dynasty, which boasts significant historical value.

至于戏折怎么会跑到砖缝里,据工程师推测,当时的情况很可能是这样的:戏曲演完了,某位当差拿累了,路过的时候就顺手沿着透风砖的小洞塞了进去。这一藏,就跟漂流瓶一样,只不过等到有缘人再打开,已是百年光阴。不管是大历史的挖掘,还是小秘密的发现,都离不开那群故宫人。

The documentary features both elder craftsmen who have retired and those invited back for guidance, as well as new craftsmen who are still learning their way around. As is well known, the renovations and repairs in the Palace Museum require extensive amounts of energy, time and patience. 

纪录片中既有退休被请回来作指导的老匠人,也有正在学习钻研的新匠人。他们分别负责不同的部分,确保紫禁城青春永驻。故宫中有大量的修缮工作,都需要付出大量的精力、时间和耐心。

During the process, the engineers would also mark the date of the old and new objects used in repairs to provide technical clues for the next generation of craftsmen.

在修缮过程中,工程师们还会把新旧不一的物件标记好日期,为下一代修缮者们提供技术线索。

正像片中所说,丹宸之所以永固,皆因一代代故宫人薪火相传。在漫长的接力中,每个人付出的时间与责任,最终留下了红墙黄瓦、流光溢彩,更留下了可以再说六百年的紫禁城。

As stated in the documentary, it is all due to the inheritance of the craftsmen that the eternal youth of the Forbidden City is maintained. In the long passing, it is everyone's dedication that leads to the standing of red walls and yellow tiles with brilliance, which will last through the next 600 years in history.

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